The Robots.txt is a text file that is used to provide instructions to bots (non-human visitors) such as search engines and research tools on how they are allowed to access a website's content. This file provides guidelines on what webpages they can access, how fast they can crawl (or access) the content, or if they can access it at all. Where the Robots.txt provides site wide control, the Robots Meta Tag provides a directive on how to both crawl and index an individual page.
It is important to note that the crawlers are on an honor system and that the Robots.txt file does not prevent them from accessing the content if they do not want to follow the directive. Learn more about creating a honeytrap to identify ip addresses of user-agents that do not obey the rules. They can be blocked at the server level.
The location of the XML Sitemap should be specified in the Robots.txt file.
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