We have all seen or heard “ W W W . ” used in website addresses, this stands for the World Wide Web and was invented in the early 1990s as a subset of the internet. This could be thought of as a user interface to the internet, as it gives an address to files or way to locate online resources which are identified by Uniform Resource Locators or URLs. These URLs can be navigated using hypertext links which we will go into shortly. Here is an illustration which we will build on later to show the relationship of the various parts of the internet. The internet contains all protocols and all globally routable addresses whereas the World Wide Web is the part of the internet that is accessible through a browser. The part we will be discussing now is what is called the “Surface Web”, or the part of the internet we can access through internet search engines. So when we want to access the world wide web we type in “h t t p colon slash slash dot w w w dot” and then the domain name or full address we want to go to. It is important to explain that for domains without a local network (e.g. not a big corporation) do not require the “WWW” prefix on the URL as most servers are configured to find the file you are looking for without adding a WWW. The same is true for not adding the file you want to access on the domain as the server is typically configured to serve a default file (e.g. index.html or index.php) if one is not specified. This request is sent through another protocol called the HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP request is sent which says I would like to access this file, and in an oversimplified explanation it sends us the file we are looking for. When we want to send sensitive information such as credit card or social security numbers we want to encrypt the transmission. This is done through “Secure” HyperText Transfer Protocol. In order to ensure that the data passed between the web server and the browser remains private we use a SSL or Secure Sockets Layer to encrypt the communication.